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小处着手之介词with - 侯丽娟

作者:侯丽娟 2019-09-27 15:42 来源:侯丽娟
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作者:武汉188金宝博篮球留预读写组侯丽娟


"开篇一练"又来啦!下面这句话用188BET金宝搏亚洲体育怎样表达呢?


有如此多的作业要做,爸妈取消了我的夏令营。我太难了!


答案将在下文揭晓。


引言

介词又称前置词,表示句子中词与词之间或者成分之间的关系,所以是组成句子和文章的重要纽带之一。在188BET金宝搏亚洲体育中,介词虽不能在句子中独立担任任何成分,但却是188BET金宝搏亚洲体育十大词类中最为活跃的一个。介词具有语义多且较为抽象的特点,所以在188BET金宝搏亚洲体育句子中使用频率非常高。很多学生认为介词是188BET金宝搏亚洲体育中的一个小词,对其用法也没有加以重视,所以实际写作中出现了很多语用错误,本该介词短语就可以完成的表达,却只能通过啰嗦的句法或者重复来实现。下面我们来具体学习一下with复合宾语结构。


with复合结构的基本形式

翻开词典你会发现介词with有十几种语义项,在此我们就不一一赘述了,我们直接切入主题,看一下with的复合结构吧:


1)with + 名词(代词)+ 名词

The brave soldier fought the enemy with a stick the only weapon.


2)with + 名词 (代词)+ 形容词

Mary raised her head with eyes full of wonder and mystery.


3)with + 名词(代词)+ 副词

Things can be much cheaper during the sales,but this is when Harrods is at its busiest,with people everywhere.(Skillful Level 3)


4)with + 名词 (代词)+ 介词短语

With the world's population now at seven billion people,our astronaut gardeners may help discover ways to feed those billions.(Skillful Level 2)


5)with + 名词(代词)+ 现在分词,表主动、进行

The formal passage from childhood into adulthood is universal,with all cultures having traditions,rites,and ceremonies that recognize this familiar transition.(Skillful Level 2)


6)with + 名词(代词)+ 过去分词,表被动、完成

She sat in her room for a few seconds with her eyes fixed on the ceiling.


7) with +名词(代词)+ to do/be,表将要发生

Only after the end of the century did the tallest building appear outside North America,with the opening of the first building to be more than half a kilometer tall.(Skillful Level 3)


with复合结构的语法功能

此类结构经常出现在描述性的文体中,主要有定语和状语两种作用。


1)作定语

定语,顾名思义,就是用来修饰、限定、说明名词或代词的品质与特征的。所以,从某种意义上讲,with复合结构可以用来替代定语从句。


A teacher who held a teaching pointer came into the classroom.

A teacher with a teaching pointer in his hand came into the classroom.

老师手持教鞭走进了教师。(with + 名词+介词短语,作定语,修饰名词teacher)


He came across a girl whose hair was dyed gray.

He came across a girl with her hair dyed gray.

他碰见一个头发染成灰白的女孩。(with + 名词 + 过去分词,作定语,修饰名词girl)


The room where the lights are on is our classroom.

The room with lights on is our classroom.

开着灯的那个教室是我们的。(with + 名词 + 副词,作定语,修饰名词room)


2)作状语

with复合结构作状语,主要说明、补充谓语动词发生的时间、方式、原因、条件或伴随情况,相当于一个状语从句。所以,在输出英文句子时,可以用with复合结构来替换部分状语从句,达到表达简洁的功效。


Since the global economic crisis has resulted in fewer job opportunities and more competition for existing job,it's clear a college education is becoming more a necessity than a luxury.


With the global economic crisis resulting in fewer job opportunities and more competition for existing jobs,it's clear a college education is becoming more a necessity than a luxury.(Skillful Level 4)


由于全球经济危机导致了更少的就业机会,进而导致对现有工作的更多竞争,大学教育与其说是奢侈品,显然正在变成一种必需品。(with + 名词 + 现在分词,用作原因状语)

结语

with复合结构中,名词、形容词、副词和介词短语多用来描述静态情况,不定式和分词则用来描述动态情况。如果想变成否定表达,可直接将with替换成without,其形式和功能没有任何变化。为了灵活掌握介词,我们要进行大量的阅读,多接触、多积累,写作时才可以熟练地写出简练、达意、生动的表达。


现在想出开篇一练的答案了吗?


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